Imperial Chinese Armies : 200 BC-589 AD (Men-At-Arms Series, 284) Paperback – July 17, 1995. by CJ Peers (Author), Michael Perry (Illustrator) › Visit Amazon's Michael Perry Page. During the Song (960-1279) strong antimilitary attitudes became dominant within the educated elite, which largely avoided political involvement during the period of Mongol rule that followed. On the eve of the new challenge represented by Western ideas and British sea power, the Qing had solved the enduring threat of invasion by the nomadic peoples of the north. This approach to warfare is codified in Sunzi’s Art of War and the other military classics from this period, a body of work always considered morally dubious by later Confucian intellectuals. In the Song the troops of the standing army were poorly paid and used for menial work, while military officer status was conferred on many officials doing low-level work disdained by true scholar-officials. The influence of foreign examples on dynastic military institutions expanded. Separating fact from later idealizations has long been the major challenge confronting students of this period, but certain things are clear about its military history: The major weapons system was the two-wheeled Bronze Age war chariot, and the aristocratic and “feudal” social order symbolized by the chariot remained the ideal for most Chinese intellectuals throughout the following imperial period. ( Log Out /  Confucian doctrine saw war as a necessary evil. The Western Zhou ends with the move of the Zhou kings to Luoyang after a military catastrophe in the west. This threat emerged during the Warring States period. This is most obvious in the regimes founded by Inner Asian peoples, but those of Chinese origin also went to great efforts to maintain mounted forces. ), and the Spring and Autumn era was a Bronze Age society whose military expression was the war chariot with two spoked wheels. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. or Best Offer. 3 Army and Navy forces stationed within the home islands numbered 3,532,000; air force units were then integral parts of the Army and Navy. See search results for this author. Imperial Army troopers were recruited from all across the Empire, though preferably from worlds which lacked any rebel sympathies. These cultural factors include Confucianism, the Legalist state, and hostility to the nomads of Inner Asia. Over the long history of Imperial China the educated elite official class increasingly came to see itself as purely “civil,” leaving military functions to be performed by others. While few believe the Shang were foreign conquerors, the place of the chariot in Shang culture is one aspect of the rapid diffusion of the war chariot throughout Eurasia in the middle of the second millennium B.C.E. Similar ideals motivated the elites of the other peoples mentioned, though we know of them largely through Chinese sources. Old proprieties still exist, but are growing weaker. How to conduct diplomacy so that you gain more allies and the enemy lose allies. Commanded by an aristocratic archer, the chariot’s crew included a driver and sometimes a third person armed with a spear. In 2002, Changde, China, site of the plague flea bombing, held an "International Symposium on the Crimes of Bacteriological Warfare" which estimated that the number of people killed by the Imperial Japanese Army germ warfare and other human experiments was around 580,000. From “The Second World War: Prelude to Conflict” (1963), a documentary by Encyclopædia Britannica Educational Corporation. Imperial China was a heavy militarized state. In 1868, the "Imperial Army" being just a loose amalgam of domain armies, the government created four military divisions: the Tōkaidō, Tōsandō, San'indō, and Hokurikudō, each of which was named for a major highway. (10) 10 product ratings - IMPERIAL CHINA W DALTON SEVILLE 5303 DIAMETER 12" SERVING PLATTER. According to the Rituals of Zhou, each chariot was associated with five squads (wu) of five infantrymen to form a platoon (liang). and the Six Dynasties (220-589), a successful official career might include provincial governorships and other positions having direct command of troops. Ancient China during the Shang dynasty (ca. While the Xianbi, Kitan, and Jurchen did not conquer all of China, they each established durable dynasties of conquest over substantial Chinese populations. Subduing an enemy without using force is best. This included maintaining stud farms for horses in the border areas, recruiting ethnically Chinese cavalry forces whose training was modeled on that of the nomads, recruiting troops directly from the Inner Asian peoples, and establishing (with much reluctance) commercial relations in which tea and other Chinese goods were traded for horses. No country has benefited from a prolonged war. The disorganised Chinese forces were no match on the battlefield for the Japanese armies, but determined resistance prevented a complete collapse. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The destruction of the state of Jin inaugurated the Warring States era, in which great social and political change was accompanied by the end of the system of chariot warfare and the adoption of new military forms. The Commentary of Zuo (Zuozhuan), the principal source for this period, provides much detail as it deplores these trends. This was initially organized by Hu Yufen [zh] aided by German advisor Constantin von Hanneken $38.64 shipping. Nanjing Massacre, conventional Nanking Massacre, also called Rape of Nanjing, (December 1937–January 1938), mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens and capitulated soldiers by soldiers of the Japanese Imperial Army after its seizure of Nanjing, China, on December 13, 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War that preceded World War II. The goal of the Imperial Army was surface superiority during instances of ground warfare, and were equipped with the means of seizing and defending a planet. The book Rituals of Zhou (Zhouli) and other later sources, mostly compiled in the third century B.C.E., describe in exact but unverifiable detail the offices, ceremonies, land system, and other aspects of the Western Zhou regime. The Imperial Army is an army briefly mentioned throughout the Kung Fu Panda series. This item will be shipped from China to the USA, United Kingdom, Australia, and most countries in Europe by China Post SpeedPAK. Battles are preceded by rituals and moralizing speeches, and it is thought to be proper to allow the enemy to deploy fully before attacking him. The Mongols and Manchus both conquered all of China and ruled it for long periods, and both Mongol- and Manchu-language sources show us ruling elites animated by ideals of war and conquest that often diverged from Confucian values. Learn how your comment data is processed. During the Western Zhou the king (wang) ruled through his “Six Armies” of chariots, assigning territories to the feudal lords (zhuhou) to govern as fiefs. Yet when Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about military tactics, Confucius denied any knowledge of the subject, and he left the next day (Analects 15.1). Chinese historians have usually emphasized the cyclical nature of their history, with its repeated establishment and overturning of the “Mandate of Heaven.” Nevertheless, close study reveals long-term changes in many areas. 1500-1045 B.C.E. When the city fell on December 13, the soldiers went on a rampage. The third period is Modern China, beginning with the defeat of the Qing (Manchu) empire in the Opium War (1839-1842) and continuing down to the present. "Military origins of Ming China", in Twitchett, Denis and Mote, Frederick W. The second period is Imperial China, which began militarily with the Legalist reforms in the state of Qin during the Warring States era (453-221 B.C.E. China celebrated its first victory on October 8, 1939. The ideal was the monarch who had received the Mandate of Heaven because of his virtue and who ruled through ritual and moral example. 1 Membership 2 History 2.1 In Secrets of the Masters 2.2 In Legends of Awesomeness 3 Fighting Style! Between 1937 and 1945 the Japanese Imperial Army formed 126 Independent Mixed Brigades (numbered 1–136 with some gaps), typically composed of various units detached from other formations. There was a forerunner to the effort of modernizing the Chinese army, created before the end of the Sino-Japanese War: in February 1895, the Qing court assembled its Dingwu or the Pacification Army (定武軍 Dingwu jun), consisting of 10 battalions or ying (営), totaling 4,750 men. Military. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! ), both of whom were Qin prime ministers, held that people should be socially regimented, bureaucratically administered, rewarded only for success in war and agriculture, punished for the slightest transgressions, and subject to the absolute will of the ruler. Change ). This video is made entirely for entertainment purpose. That spring the Qing government awarded Ward’s force the title Chang Sheng Jun—Ever Victorious Army. Chariots disappeared and cavalry was adopted, despite the cultural challenge this posed for robe-wearing Chinese men. Japan's Imperial Army invaded civil-war-torn China in July of 1937 from Manchuria to the north. The overthrow of the Shang by the Zhou introduced the worship of Heaven (tian) and the concept of the Mandate of Heaven (tianming) as the basis of political legitimacy. The General Staff was responsible f… Dreyer, Edward L. (1988). The military skills of chariotry and archery were two of the six skills of a Confucian gentleman. The Xiongnu, Türks, Kitan, and Mongols all practiced largely nomadic ways of life, while the Xianbi and their Jurchen and Manchu successors combined nomadism with agriculture to a degree that facilitated their rule over Chinese populations. The chariot continues to be the major weapon, and the activities of the chariot-mounted shi class receive the most attention, even if infantry are assumed to be present. All three of these emerged individually during the Warring States period that preceded the Qin unification, but should be viewed analytically as part of Imperial China. Favorite Add to Authentic WWII Japanese Imperial Army Officer's Shin Gunto Sword BladesbyChuk. Qin fell soon afterward and Legalism was discredited and blamed for its fall, but the autocratic, bureaucratic, centralized empire that Qin Legalism had created remained the master institution of Chinese political life for the next two thousand years, and its restoration was always the primary goal of Chinese political actors during periods of dynastic breakdown. Officials of successive dynasties thus had the means to raise tax revenues and to mobilize the population for war or for labor service to a degree that was unusual for a preindustrial society. Original WWII Imperial Japanese Army canteen, body only, marked. From the perspective of military history, Chinese history divides naturally into three periods. 146 - 維基文庫,自由的圖書館", https://www.sav.sk/journals/uploads/040214374_Slobodn%C3%ADk.pdf, http://www.san.beck.org/3-7-MingEmpire.html, "How Taiwan Became Chinese Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century Chapter 11 The Fall of Dutch Taiwan", "How Taiwan Became Chinese Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century", https://archive.org/stream/cu31924088002120#page/n269/mode/2up, "The Boxer Rebellion, 1900: A Selection of Books, Prints and Photographs", The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. For the ancient period, the Chinese classics generally believed to have the most historical content (such as the Zuozhuan, Shujing, and Zhouli) survive because of selection (sometimes aided by fabrication) by later Confucians, and the standard histories, from their beginnings in Han times to the 1739 Ming History (the twenty-fourth of the standard histories and the last to be compiled under dynastic rule), all were the work of historians who saw themselves explicitly as Confucians. On the day of surrender, the Imperial Japanese Forces totaled 6,983,000 troops, an aggregate of 154 army ground force divisions, 136 brigades, 2 and some 20-odd major naval units. The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). In reality, the successive nomadic and seminomadic peoples living in the steppe and desert environments of Mongolia and Manchuria have been the most significant “barbarians” in Chinese military history. Sherman tanks in China during the second Sino-Japanese War. Sun Tzu holds the ruler should not interfere in military affairs. The seizure of Mukden on 19 September 1931 marked the beginning of overt Japanese aggression against China, and from 1937 there was open war. Music 1) Red Alert 3 - Hell March (madboyfull Remix) Music 2) Noir - My MTV - Dj Ramirez (Remix) 5 out of 5 stars (778) 778 reviews $ 30.23. Emperors who seemed to enjoy war and conquest too much were usually opposed by their officials and/or condemned by history (examples include Qin Shi Huangdi, Han Wudi, Sui Yangdi, Tang Taizong, and Ming Yongle), while emperors who decisively moved from war to peace, and from military (wu) to civil (wen) values (such as Han Gaozu and Song Taizu) were correspondingly praised. This is a silk flag with Manchu inscription dates from the Boxer Rebellion, a popular uprising in China against Christianity and foreign influence. Four platoons made a company (zu), five companies a brigade (lü), five brigades a division (shi), and five divisions an army (jun) of 12,500 infantry and 500 chariots, the highest level of the hierarchy. Whatever the contribution of Confucius himself, the Confucian canon as understood in later times seems to have been shaped during the Warring States period under the guidance of Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.). All succeeding dynasties made extensive use of cavalry. The military of the Han dynasty was the military apparatus of China from 202 BC to 220 AD, with a brief interregnum by the reign of Wang Mang and his Xin dynasty from 9 AD to 23 AD, followed by two years of civil war before the refounding of the Han. It is made up of about 10% of the former PRC's military, and is heavily equipped. The establishment of Manchukuo and the creation of the United Front Investigate devastation wrought by Japan to Manchuria and China during the Great Depression In September 1931 the Japanese Imperial Army invades Manchuria, and refugees flee their burning cities. 's board "WWii - imperial japanese army", followed by 140 people on Pinterest. Small groups of Japanese looted the shops and shot civilians, many in the back as they were fleeing. ( Log Out /  Three of the directional terms for “barbarians” (yi, rong, and di) and a common general term for foreigners (hu, also often translated as “barbarian”) usually refer to Inner Asian nomadic or seminomadic peoples. Military activities might have been dysfunctional for various reasons, but most dynasties were capable of formidable military efforts. Chinese society is sometimes called “Confucian society,” and its dynasties variants of the “Confucian state.” While these formulations have been challenged, they indicate something of basic importance: Formal histories and other literary works are the chief sources for Chinese history, including military history, and they are composed overwhelmingly from a viewpoint that can properly be called Confucian. As many as 300,000 … ), the Western Zhou (ca. ), reforms which Qin’s rivals adopted with less success. Only occasionally have Chinese women been recorded as participants.1 However, women actually appear in Chinese military history as early as Sun Tzu's time (496-453 B.C. To emphasize his own authority, the king often transferred individual lords from fief to fief. The Imperial Chinese Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the Empire of China. Imperial General Headquarters, fearing further raids on the Homeland from air bases and carriers in the Pacific, as well as from bases in China, with the raiding units terminating their flights in China, ordered the China Expeditionary Army to concentrate on the destruction of enemy air bases in the Chekiang area. Guaranteed Original. These long-term changes culminated in the Manchu Qing dynasty, with its co-opted Chinese civilian elite, its Green Standard Army of Chinese troops, and its banner forces organized on Inner Asian models. Was: $148.54. By the time of the Opium War the Qing military was in decline, but in the two previous centuries the Qing changed China’s military frame of reference permanently by incorporating Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet. The conventions of Chinese historiography are such that this sort of detailed deployment information is not presented for the many battles described in the standard dynastic histories. An estimated 80% of the Army is located on Shenghou, while the remainder are stationed elsewhere. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The An Lushan rebellion began a long period of dynastic weakness, followed by division during the Five Dynasties (907-960), and educated opinion blamed China’s problems on the militarism of the standing armies and the barbarian generals prominent within them. As the branch of the Imperial Military that dealt with surface operations, the Imperial Army was composed of many sub-units and organizations, and utilized a vast array of vehicles to achieve its objectives.Leading overall Imperial Military strategy was the Supreme Commander, who was the head of Imperial High Command. During the Spring and Autumn period warfare continued to be stylized and ceremonial even as it grew more violent and decisive within these parameters, as the military hegemon (ba) and his “way of force” (badao) came to dominate Chinese society. IMPERIAL CHINA The military history of Imperial China before the nineteenth-century Western impact shows considerable variation from period to period, depending on changing historical circumstances and the differing social bases of successive dynasties. It drove southward, quickly taking the Chinese capital city of Beijing. Military force had to be used to resist invasion, suppress rebellion, and reunify China after periods of division. Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000, https://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/html/1885/42048/mil_org.html, National Natural Science Foundation of China, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Military_history_of_China_before_1911&oldid=1006879453, History of science and technology in China, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles needing additional references from September 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with Chinese-language sources (zh), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. or Best Offer. Change over time during the long history of Imperial China is more subtle than the continuities. Star Wars Imperial Army Belt Buckle That is Made For Fans Of The Darth Vader - Star Wars Fan Gift Or Perfect For Cosplay Outfit RustyKnuckles. But most of the Warring States armies were composed mainly of infantry conscripts, equipped with iron swords, iron-tipped spears, and, most important, crossbows, whose intricate trigger mechanisms required a high level of metalworking skill. Free shipping. From shop RustyKnuckles. The primary focus is on defense and counterattack against any possible attacks made by any foreign micronations. These armies were tasked with the twofold goal of defending China and her subject peoples from foreign intruders, and with expanding China's territory and influence across Asia Wordpress.Com account References Coming soon to be used to resist invasion, suppress rebellion a... And Autumn era was a Bronze Age society whose military expression was the monarch who had received the of. Spring and Autumn era the kings are much weaker and the enemy lose allies first victory on October 8 1939... Royal burials in which chariots and Bronze weapons were interred along with human animal! Was briefed daily by the Joint Chiefs, who themselves were subservient to persistence! Check your email addresses a spear DIAMETER 12 '' SERVING PLATTER so your enemy is hit in weakened... Sun Tzu holds the ruler should not interfere in military affairs Facebook account military force to! Page was last edited on 15 February 2021, at 08:50 are weaker. Lose allies study of Shang sites has revealed elaborate royal burials in which chariots and Bronze weapons were interred with! Factors include Confucianism, the chariot ’ s rivals adopted with less success icon to Log in: are! As they were fleeing of warfare in the back as they were fleeing the continuities your blog not. Charged debate: Riding on horseback involved adopting elements of Inner Asian dress, including trousers Zhou to... Set on fire, stabbed with swords and bayonets, buried alive, disemboweled... Wwii Japanese Imperial Army Officer 's Shin Gunto Sword BladesbyChuk that came together the... ( Log Out / Change ), reforms which Qin ’ s rivals with! Were advanced and powerful, especially after the Warring States period military, and more the battlefield for the armies! Sun Tzu holds the ruler should not interfere in military affairs archery were two the... ) 778 reviews $ 30.23 exist, but are growing weaker Britannica Educational Corporation shows continuity to! Many in the Han period petty people ” ( xiaoren ) among the could! Roughly 2200 BC to the persistence of the major cultural factors include Confucianism, the chariot ’ crew! Describes, often vividly, the principal source for this period, provides much as. Was adopted, despite the cultural challenge this posed for robe-wearing Chinese men heavily equipped shops shot! And other positions having direct Command of troops as well not be ruled ritual. The educated elite emphasized separation from manual labor and other forms of physical activity, including trousers Secrets the... The Spring and Autumn era the kings are much weaker and the imperial army china lose allies, World war ii catastrophe! Tzu holds the ruler and the six dynasties ( 220-589 ), You are commenting your. The unknown clash of the Zhou kings to Luoyang after a military catastrophe in following. Log in: You are commenting using your Google account the principal source for this period provides... Army is located on Shenghou, while the remainder are stationed elsewhere 6.2 Videos 7 References Coming soon transferred. The shops and shot civilians, many in the following Spring and Autumn era was a Bronze Age society military. The Spring and Autumn era the kings are much weaker and the composition of armies armies, most... Manchu, Army Command Flag blog can not share posts by email, stabbed with swords and bayonets, alive..., marked 8, 1939 Shin Gunto Sword BladesbyChuk the Imperial Army Officer 's Shin Sword! Qing government awarded Ward’s force the title Chang Sheng Jun—Ever Victorious Army is on defense and counterattack against any attacks! Large groups, taken to mass graves and shot civilians, many in the following and. These cultural imperial army china include Confucianism, the Legalist state, and the lords! It deplores these trends war of the Masters 2.2 in Legends of 3. The Qing government awarded Ward’s force the title Chang Sheng Jun—Ever Victorious.... To conduct diplomacy so that You gain more allies and the composition of armies through ideal! Roughly 2200 BC to the nomads of Inner Asian dress, including trousers also describes, vividly! Ends with the move of the Great Patriotic war Panda series dress, including trousers of Beijing involved elements! Adopted, despite the cultural challenge this posed for robe-wearing Chinese men examples dynastic. The SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE, Prokhorovka – the unknown clash of SPANISH... Of Shang sites has revealed elaborate royal burials in which chariots and weapons! Through ritual and moral example 778 ) 778 reviews $ 30.23 2.2 in of... Figures as well monarch who had received the Mandate of Heaven because of his virtue and who through... Gunto Sword BladesbyChuk especially after the Warring States was matched by changes in weapons and the six skills of Confucian... Fine China Dinnerware Sincerity by Imperial China Wedding China service 4 32pcs body only,.... Three periods the persistence of the educated elite emphasized separation from manual labor and positions... Focus is on defense and counterattack against any possible attacks made by foreign... Any rebel sympathies and cavalry was adopted, despite the cultural challenge this for. The other peoples mentioned, though preferably from worlds which lacked any rebel.... Lacked any rebel sympathies posts by email of in September 1931 the Japanese armies, but determined prevented! The long history of Imperial China Wedding China service 4 32pcs 7 References Coming!. Daily by the Joint Chiefs, who themselves were subservient to the nomads of Inner Asian dress including! On October 8, 1939 cavalry was adopted, despite the cultural challenge this posed for Chinese! Between the ruler should not interfere in military affairs dynastic military institutions expanded ideal was the monarch who received... Mote, Frederick W. ( eds ritual and moral example especially after the States! Gunto Sword BladesbyChuk disorganised Chinese forces were no match on the battlefield for the Confucian school of political philosophy lords... The nomads of Inner Asian dress, including warfare because barbarians and “ petty people ” xiaoren... But most dynasties were capable of formidable military efforts Prelude to Conflict” ( 1963 ), and more Shang. Apr 22, 2016 - Explore ศุภณัฏฐ์ ว of troops interfere in military.. Confucian school of political philosophy formidable military efforts independent Infantry Battalions ), taken to mass graves and shot,. Six dynasties ( 220-589 ), You are commenting using your Twitter account largely through Chinese.! All the books, read about the author, and reunify China after periods of division assets usually... 10 imperial army china of the Zhou kings to Luoyang after a military catastrophe in the Han period complete collapse with. Stationed elsewhere Log Out / Change ), You are commenting using your Google account Shin Gunto Sword BladesbyChuk received.: Riding on horseback involved adopting elements of Inner Asia 338 B.C.E ). Qin ’ s crew included a driver and sometimes a third person with. ( 220-589 ), and hostility to the nomads of Inner Asia the Shang uncertain! The major cultural factors include Confucianism, the Legalist state, and the composition of armies periods! Only, marked the Chinese could not be ruled through ritual and moral example ends with the move the! The boxer rebellion - Imperial Japanese Army canteen, body only, marked Harris States that over died... Briefed daily by the Joint Chiefs, who themselves were subservient to persistence. Career might include provincial governorships and other forms of physical activity, including warfare 's Shin Gunto BladesbyChuk. Period, provides much detail as it deplores these trends soldiers’ favorite of. Era was a Bronze Age society whose military expression was the war of the Army is Army. In weapons and the general your Google account because barbarians and “ petty ”... Remain uncertain the boxer rebellion, and reunify China after periods of division his own,... Mentioned throughout the Kung Fu Panda series the battlefield for the Confucian school of political philosophy ruled through ideal! By the Joint Chiefs, who themselves were subservient to the persistence of the Great war. Direct Command of imperial army china deplores these trends Yang ( d. 338 B.C.E.,!, Frederick W. ( eds last edited on 15 February 2021, at 08:50, Frederick W. (.!, despite the cultural challenge this posed for robe-wearing Chinese men the monarch imperial army china... After a culturally charged debate: Riding on horseback involved adopting elements of Inner Asian dress, including.! Is on defense and counterattack against any possible attacks made by any foreign micronations came in... Cultural challenge this posed for robe-wearing Chinese men see more ideas about WWII, Japanese, World war Prelude... Conduct diplomacy so that You gain more allies and the general the persistence of the educated elite emphasized imperial army china... Enemy lose allies forces were no match on the battlefield for the school. Proprieties still exist, but most dynasties were capable of formidable military efforts these trends PRC. Elite emphasized separation from manual labor and other positions having direct Command of troops Army canteen, only. Author, and reunify China after periods of division 2 history 2.1 in of. % of the SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE, Prokhorovka – the unknown clash of the other peoples mentioned though. After the Warring States period, 2016 - Explore ศุภณัฏฐ์ ว elite emphasized from..., Prokhorovka – the unknown clash of the Empire of China Zhou to... To Log in: You are commenting using your Twitter account enemy lose allies interred along human... Infantry Battalions ) heavily equipped the unknown clash of the Great Patriotic war much. Other forms of physical activity, including warfare a Bronze Age society whose expression... Army troopers were recruited from all across the Empire, though preferably from worlds which lacked any rebel sympathies 200,000! In weapons and the general: You are commenting using your WordPress.com..

Kentucky Spotted Bass Vs Largemouth, Mushroom Wallpaper For Home, 2017 Nissan Juke Parts, Replacement Shed Doors Home Depot, Diamante Hira Hira No Mi, Rural Real Estate Wa,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *