A BRIEF HISTORY OF EXPRESSIVE THERAPIES McNiff (1981, 1992) proposes that the arts have consistently been part of life as well as healing throughout the … In doing so, these pioneering individuals began to define a discipline that was distinct from other, older professions. ‘To paint what we see before us is a different art from painting what we see within’. Art Therapy is relatively young approach. It seems clear that this pairing is as old as human society itself, having occurred repeatedly throughout our history across place and time (Malchiodi, 1998). 6817 Many times, it's easy to stick with what you're comfortable with. Some progressive educators placed particular emphasis on the role art played in the overall development of children (Cane, 1951/1983; Kellogg, 1969; Lowenfeld, 1987; Uhlin, 1972/1984). Theoretical and Approaches Learning and … In addition, Ulman (along with her coeditor Dachinger) (1975/1996) published the first book of collected essays on art therapy that served as one of the few texts in the field for many years. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy. Naumburg linked art to the expression of the unconscious through free association. PhDessay is an educational resource where over 1,000,000 free essays are collected. Art therapy is a relatively young therapeutic discipline. During the classical period of art therapy, the 1940’s to the 1970’s, mental health professionals from psychiatrists, analysts, social workers, psychologists, and counselors contributed to writing about the value of art therapy. As far as art therapy goes as a form of therapy, it has been around for many years, but is a relatively new psychotherapeutic form of treatment. Benjamin McCrimmon. The history of art therapy focuses on the continuing trends shaped majorly on the practice and theory. An emerging theme in the literature is the unique role the creative arts therapies can play in the assessment and evaluation of clients (Bruscia, 1988; Feder & Feder, 1998). college application essay serviceA BRIEF HISTORY OF ART THERAPY Randy M. Vick This history of art therapy focuses on the precursory and continuing trends that have shaped the theory and practice and the literature that reflects this development. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The impact of psychoanalysis on the early development of art therapy was pro-found. INFLUENCES FROM THE DISTANT PAST AND NEIGHBORING FIELDS Art therapy is a hybrid discipline based primarily on the fields of art and psychology, drawing characteristics from each parent to evolve a unique new entity. The History of Art Therapy. number: 206095338. Scholarship, like history, builds on the foundations laid by others. Here's a brief summary of what I learned: Some people argue that the se Kramer, Rubin, Ulman, and Wilson (all cited in Rubin, 1987/2001) and Levick (1983) all use psychoanalytic language and concepts. Although art has long been used by individuals as a form of expression, the history of the distinct profession of art therapy began more recently after some psychiatrists began using the arts in various methods of their psychiatric treatment in the 1800’s. There is pleasure in admiring the work that has already been done and excitement in the weaving. 10, Brief History of Art Therapy. There are a lot more people practicing it, but there still aren’t as many qualified ‘Art Psychologists’ around as there could be and there is also a severe lack of funding going into art therapy- which is something I plan to explore in greater depth. Lewis,anAmericanpsychiatrist of the early 20th Century period, may be credited with introducing the practice of art as therapy for psychiatricdisorders. Her "art as therapy" approach emphasizes the intrinsic therapeutic potential in the art-making process and the central role the defense mechanism of sublimation plays in this experience (Kramer, 1971/1993). At the end of the blog there are a few books and articles that go deeper into the history and are well worth the read. FAMILY THERAPY AND OTHER APPROACHES A number of writers (Landgarten, 1987; Linesch, 1993; Riley & Malchiodi, 1994; Sobol, 1982) have built on Kwiatkowska's early family work, particularly in California where art therapists become licensed as marriage and family therapists. A Brief History of Art Therapy: From Freud to Naumburg and Kramer . This history covers theories of genius and insanity, biographies of "mad" artists, depictions of madness by artists, and the various attempts to reach an understanding of the potential art has as an aid to mental health treatment and diagnosis. Art therapy was being practiced in the United States around the same time, with the most influential North American practitioners being educator Margaret Naumburg and artist Edith Kramer. 8 Moon, 1990/1995), phenomenological (Betensky, 1995), and gestalt (Rhyne, 1973/1995) approaches. I am indebted to the authors of four other histories that I found to be particularly useful in the preparation of this chapter. Each of these references provided information as well as inspiration and I encourage readers to consult them for additional perspectives. However, sometimes classes force me to go outside of my comfort zone, and pursue other topics. brief description of current art historical theories is offered. The significance psychoanalytic writers placed on early childhood experiences made the crossover of these theories into education an easy one (Junge & Asawa, 1994). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/brief-history-of-art-therapy/. It first began around the mid-20th Century, arising independently in English-speaking and European areas. Major Events in the Field of Art Therapy *I encourage all of you, if you are interested in any of the happenings in this timeline, to please look further into the history of Art Therapy. Art therapy is as old as the human society’s existence, and has just changed its form (Malchiodi, 1998) and is still changing it. Last medically reviewed on December 8, 2016. Providing a complete overview of art therapy, from theory and research to practical applications, this is the definitive handbook in the field. The Wiley handbook of Art Therapy, by David E. Gussak and Marcia l. Rosal, The History of Art Therapy, by Arttherapyjournal.org- http://www.arttherapyjournal.org/art-therapy-history.html, A Brief History of Art Therapy, by Randy M. Vick- http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/Briefhistoryat.pdf, A Student at Bournemouth University studying Multi-media Journalism, doing my final year major project based around Art Therapy. Through creative expression people learn how to become authentic, self actualised and connected with Building on these theories, many writers began to examine how a specific sort of creative product—art—could be under-stood as an illustration of mental health or disturbance (Anastasi & Foley, 1941; Arnheim, 1954; Kreitler & Kreitler, 1972). In 1974, Gantt and Schmal published an annotated bibliography of sources relating to the topic of art therapy from 1940-1973 (1,175 articles, books, and papers), yet Rubin (1999) notes that in that same year there were only 12 books written by art therapists, a number that crawled to 19 some 10 years later. Work by Edwards and Wallace (both cited in Rubin, 1987/ 2001), McConeghey (1986), and Schaverian (1992) all reflect this emphasis. Scholarship, like history, builds on the foundations laid by others. It seems strange it took so long for the idea of ‘art therapy’ to become a noticed subsection of psychotherapy, the term only being coined in 1942 by artist Adrian Hill in England, but the practice also being used in the 1940’s around the same time in America by Margaret Naumburg who is also known as the ‘mother of art therapy’. Her gift as a writer was to precisely synthesize and articulate complex ideas. As of right now in 2015, it is still as relevant today as it was then, and has expanded greatly since it became a profession. Recently, approximately 21% of art therapists surveyed by the American Art Therapy Association described their primary theoretical orientation as "eclectic," the single largest percentage reported (Elkins & Stovall, 2000). In the early part of the twentieth … Because there was no formal art therapy training to be had, these early writers were trained in other fields and mentored by psychiatrists, analysts, and other mental health professionals. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH In addition to psychoanalysis and the rehumanization of people with mental illness, one of the strongest trends to emerge within modern psychology has been the focus on standardized methods of diagnostic assessment and research. This text will be of primary interest to art therapists and students, to art educators and historians, and to those interested in how mental health … It is my hope that readers can appreciate the processes and the products that have shaped this profession. Discuss. Finally, the book presents issues essential to the field today such as art therapy registration, certification and licensing, art therapy assessment procedures, research, multiculturalism and art therapy as an international phenomenon. A Brief History of Art Therapy Creative therapies and the brain Person Centred Art Therapy Emphasizes self- actualisation, and finding ones own meaning through self expression. The development of the profession of art therapy can be seen as the formal application of a long-standing human tradi-tion influenced by the intellectual and social trends of the 20th century (Junge & Asawa, 1994). In a landmark book, Approaches to Art Therapy first published in 1987, Rubin (1987/2001) brought together essays by authors representing the diversity of theoretical positions within the field. The establishment of art therapy as a unique and publicly accepted ther… Art therapists working with children with emotional and developmental disabilities have also adapted concepts from developmental (Aach-Feldman & Kunkle-Miller, cited in Rubin, 1987/2001; Williams & Wood, 1975) and behavioral psychology (Roth, cited in Rubin, 1987/2001). Jung himself said-. Are Clinical Psychologists Simply Expensive Therapists? 6% suggests that much contemporary practice is still informed by generally psychodynamic concepts (Elkins & Stovall, 7 2000). Followinghim, severaldistinguishedscientists.forexample, MargaretNaumburg, LorenaBender,PaulSchilderand Edith Kramerin the UnitedStates, Adrian … While Naumburg borrowed heavily from the techniques of psychoanalytic practice, Kramer took a different approach by adapting concepts from Freud's personality theory to explain the art therapy process. A Brief History of Art Therapy. 1976). All this seems to suggest that art therapy will continue to have a role in exploring the connections between body and mind. 1%), Jungian (5. Art therapy as a profession began in the mid-20th century, arising independently in English-speaking and European countries. Most of the practices which are being followed by art therapy are adapted with inspiration with the sc… 9). Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. ( Log Out /  Art itself has always been seen as a way of releasing inner thoughts and expressing oneself by putting pencil to paper or brush to canvas. I am indebted to the authors of four other histories that I found to … Therapeutic rituals using the visual arts can be found in ancient cultures from hundreds of years ago, such as Navajo sand paintings and African sculpture. Jung was certain of its relevance and importance as a form of therapy, to those who need to express how they’re truly feeling within. Familiar with the ideas of both Freud and Jung, Naumburg (1966/1987) conceived her "dynamically oriented art therapy" to be largely analogous to the psychoanalytic practices of the day. Several professional journals were born; today there … https://phdessay.com/brief-history-of-art-therapy/. The story of the formation and how early Art Therapists practiced is very interesting (I may elaborate on this at… New York: Guilford Press. This study looks at the value of counselling in supporting clients with low self-esteem and low confidence due to poor body image. Are Clinical Psychologists simply expensive therapists? This week I mostly just researched the history of art therapy. Garai (cited in Rubin, 1987/2001) has written from a general humanistic position, Rogers (1993) and Silverstone (1997) use a person-centered model, and Dreikurs (1986) and Garlock (cited in Rubin, 1987) have adapted ideas first articulated by Alfred Adier. Medicine, Health, and Rehabilitation Hospitals have long served as important incubators for the field of art therapy. Art Therapy is a well-developed profession in the US and the UK and is an approach that is used to help people of all ages. A brief history of art therapy In: Handbook of Art Therapy. The in-creasing number of publications, along with the founding of the American Art Therapy Association in 1969, evolved the professional identity of the art therapist, credentials, and the role of art therapists vis-a-vis related professionals (Shoemaker et al. A Brief History of Art From Antiquity to Impressionism. Like Kramer, she had fled Europe at the time of World War II adding to the list of emigre thinkers who influenced the development of mental health disciplines in the United States. Interpretations of the newer developments in psychoanalysis such as the theories of Klein (Weir, 1990), self psychology (Lachman-Chapin) and object relations theory (Robbins) can also be found in the art therapy literature (both cited in Rubin, 1987/2001). Soon enough, the term "art therapy" began to be used to describe a form of psychotherapy that placed art practices and interventions alongside talk as the central modality of treatment (Naumburg, 1950/1973). 6 Middle Years: Other Pioneering Writers (1970s to Mid-1980s) The 1970s through the mid-1980s saw the emergence of an increasing number of publications that presented a broader range of applications and conceptual perspectives (Betensky, 1973; Landgarten, 1981; Levick, 1983; McNiff, 1981; Rhyne, 1973/ 1995; Robbins & Sibley, 1976; Rubin, 1978/1984; Wadeson, 1980), although psychoanalysis remained a dominant influence. This position is in keeping with one delineated by Wadeson (in Rubin, 1987/2001) and should not be surprising in a field that itself draws from a variety of disciplines. Two parallel themes from this era are the relatively unstructured methods of art assessment (Elkisch, 1948; Shaw, 1934) and the various approaches to interpreting these productions (Machover, 1949/1980). Scholars These simple paper-and-pencil "tests," with their formalized procedures and standardized methods of interpretation, became widely used in the evaluation and diagnosis of children and adults and are still employed to a lesser degree today (though often with revamped purpose and procedure). She also coauthored a short book that helped introduce the field of art therapy to the general public (Ulman, Kramer, & Kwiatkowska, 1978). This trend toward the therapeutic application of art within educational settings continues today (Anderson, 1978/1992; Bush, 1997; Henley, 1992). Art Therapy is the use of the creative arts to express and reflect on emotional states with the guidance of an art … For example, I like theology, so I stick with reading about theology. Finally, it should be noted here that art therapy was not a phenomenon exclusive to the United States. The last of these four remarkable women, Kwiatkowska, made her major contributions in the areas of research and family art therapy. There were more art therapists working in tandem with social services and rehabs for example, helping those in need by giving them something a bit more aesthetically expressive than just group therapies or simply being told to stop- especially during a time when mental health, addiction and other afflictions were still incredibly misunderstood. The next five most frequently reported models: psychodynamic (10. For … Through … LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES Perhaps because they are perceived to be mechanistic, those psychological theories that emphasize learning tend to be less popular with art therapists. Hire a subject expert to help you with Brief History of Art Therapy. Contemporary Art Therapy Theories (Mid-1980s to Present) The art therapy literature continues to grow. 5%), and psychoanalytic (3. Medically reviewed by Scientific Advisory Board — … In his book, The Discovery of the Art of the Insane, MacGregor (1989) presents a history of the interplay of art and psychology pning the last 300 years. This thesis uses a quantitative approach to evaluate the theory of value. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES The ideas of Freud and his followers (see Chapter 2, this volume) have been part of art therapy since the earliest days, although contemporary writers are more likely to apply terms such as "transference" and "the defense mechanisms" to articulate a position rather than employ classic psychoanalytic techniques ith any degree of orthodoxy. Relational (Dalley, Rifkind, & Terry, 1993) and feminist (Hogan, 1997) approaches question the hierarchy in the client/therapist relationship and empower-ing the client and have also shaped contemporary art therapy practice. Brief History of Art Therapy. Both Malchiodi (1998) and Rubin (1999) have assembled histories based on contributing trends, as did Junge and Asawa (1994) who have pro-vided extensive details on the personalities and politics involved in the formation of the American Art Therapy Association. Through her early work in the innovative Walden School, which she founded (along with her sister Florence Cane), and later in psychi-atric settings she developed her ideas and, in the 1940s, began to write about what was to become known as art therapy (Detre et al. . Reformers such as Rush in the United States and Pinel in France made great strides in creating a more humane environment for their patients. She brought together her experiences in various psychiatric settings in a book that became the foundation for working with families through art (Kwiatkowska, 1978). (2018, Jan 04). It’s always thought of as a relaxing way of spending time, laying back and working on something that you could either be extremely passionate about or just fancy doing just because you can. Writings by Lachman-Chapin (1983); Knill (1995), who espouses an expressive arts therapies approach (Chapter 8, this volume); and C. Moon (2002) reflect this studio approach to theory and practice. Frank-lin, Farrelly-Hansen, Marek, Swan-Foster, and Wallingford (2000) describe a transpersonal approach to art therapy. Kramer became an important figure in laying the groundwork for art … Chapter 8 HANNA YAXA KWIATKOWSKA(Deceased, 1980) THE INVENTION OF FAMILY ART THERAPYChapter 9 A BRIEF HISTORY OF ART THERAPY IN GREAT BRITAIN AND CANADA; Chapter 10 THE 1960s: THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ART THERAPY; Chapter 11 MYRA LEVICK (b. With his emphasis on images from the unconscious, it was natural for Jung's concepts of analytical and archetypal psychology to cross over into art therapy (see Chapter 2, this volume). The complex nature of poor body image and. Art therapists now are also employed in school systems to address … Haven’t found the relevant content? In her essay "Art Therapy: Problems of Definition," Ulman (1975/1996) compares and contrasts Naumburg's "art psychotherapy" and Kramer's "art as therapy" models so clearly that it continues to be the definitive presentation of this core theoretical continuum. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ART THERAPY Randy M. Vick This history of art therapy focuses on the precursory and continuing trends that have shaped the theory and practice and the literature that reflects this development. Early art therapy researchers also looked to psychology and embraced its empiri-cal approach for their research (Kwiatkowska, 1978). Spreading Art Therapy Worldwide. A Brief History of Art Therapy. Many of the more common stereotypes about art therapy (specific, assigned drawings; finger painting; and the role of the therapist in divining the "true meaning" of the drawings) can, in fact, be traced directly to this era. Yet there are art therapy authors whose work has been informed by these theories. Jan 25, 2016 - A BRIEF HISTORY OF ART THERAPY - Randy M. Vick Because of the relatively vast scale of art historical resources compared to art therapy resources, the art history review is condensed to a degree that equal attention might be paid to each area of focus in this paper. Publications by Horovitz-Darby (1994), Farrelly-Hansen (2001), and McNiff (1992) reflect an emphasis on spiritual and philosophical concepts over psychological theory. View all posts by ballan12345. 9 CONCLUSION Every art therapist knows there is much to be learned from the process of making an artwork as well as from standing back and viewing the finished product. If one could name a grandfather of art therapy, then that name would be Sigmund Freud. Concordia University Chicago. Other authors began recognizing the po-tential art has as a tool within treatment (Winnicott, 1971). The development of the literature was also enriched during this period with the introduction of two new journals: Art Psychotherapy in 1973 (called The Arts in Psychotherapy after 1980) and Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, in 1983 (Rubin, 1999). , 1983). What is Art Therapy? In 1922, German psychiatrist Hans Prinzhorn (1922/1995) published The Artistry of the Men-tally III, a book that depicted and described the artistic productions of residents of in-sane asylums across Europe. AVOIDING ETHICAL IMPROPRIETY: PROBLEMS OF DUAL ROLE RELATIONSHIPS INTRODUCTION While the primary role of a therapist is to provide counseling services, therapists often assume further professional roles related to their. The idea of art therapy, had however, been around much longer. ( Log Out /  Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Art therapy in the past decade has become an integral part of expanding social services and a new focus on the healing aspects of expressive arts. 1 From the Realms or Art Art making is an innate human tendency, so much so it has been argued that, like speech and tool making, this activity could be used to define our species (Dissana-yake, 1992). Perspectives from these and other relevant sources are briefly summarized here. The key difference is the art therapy perspective that the making and viewing of the art have inherent therapeutic potential for the client, a position not necessarily held by psychometricians. TRENDS IN 19TH- AND 20TH-CENTURY PSYCHOLOGY For much of human history mental illness was regarded with fear and misunderstanding as a manifestation of either divine or demonic forces. Dividend Policy of Indian Corporate Firms: An Analysis of Trends and Determinants Dr. Y. Subba Reddy1 The present study examines the dividend behavior of Indian corporate firms over the period. Clinical Psychology is a combination of science, knowledge and theories which together formulate a scientific approach which enables a clinical psychologist to ask. More recently, models from the behavioral sciences and other fields have been used as resources in conducting art therapy research (Kaplan, 2000; McNiff, 1998; Wadeson, 1992). Kramer's (1958, 1971/1993) work in therapeutic schools (as opposed to Naumburg's psychiatric emphasis) allows for more direct application of her ideas to educational settings. Rubin (1999) also speculates that art therapists may be more comfortable with an intuitive approach than other mental health practitioners because as artists they "pride themselves on their innate sensitivities, and tend to be antiauthoritarian and anti-theoretical" (p. 180). Grounded theory and social process: a new direction for leadership research, Value at risk: a quantitative study on the Nordic stock exchange. Classical Period (1940s to 1970s) In the middle of the 20th century a largely independent assortment of individuals began to use the term "art therapy" in their writings to describe their work with clients. 48 Vitosha Boulevard, ground floor, 1000, Sofia, Bulgaria Bulgarian reg, Farrelly-Hansen,,! A clinical psychologist to ask have been humans, there has been used as a writer was precisely. 'S literature the development of any discipline is best traced through the evolution art. Log in: you are commenting using your WordPress.com account been working collaboratively health... Continues to grow that found in art therapy authors whose work has informed! To help you to Log in: you are commenting using your Facebook account four women. / Change ), you are commenting using your Google account we use cookies to you. The Funding and Importance of art therapy experience possible narrative therapy into her (... Psychologist to ask gift as a means of communication, self-expression, group interaction, diagnosis, consciousness... Professional journals a brief history of art therapy born ; today there … this week I mostly researched... Each of these references provided information as well as inspiration and new creative for... Focuses on the foundations laid by others the approach to evaluate the theory of value each of four. 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